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5 years ago  ::  Dec 31, 2009 - 6:14PM #1
he-man
Posts: 3,869

Think you know about Christmas in the year 2009? Think again: This was also shown on the History Channel and you can see the Live beating of the Children and the goulish faces of the Santa Claus helpers.You can also check out the other names used for the helpers (elves) of Santa:“buttenmandl” “knecht reprecht” “Zwarte Piet”  ” Bellzebub”  “Balthazar” .It is an alternate form of the Babylonian king Belshazzar, mentioned in the Book of Daniel.


Often the subject of winter poems and tales, the Companions travel with St. Nicholas (also called Father Christmas or Santa Claus), carrying with them a rod (sometimes a stick and in modern times often a broom) and a sack. They are sometimes dressed in black rags, bearing a black face and unruly black hair. In many contemporary portrayals the companions look like dark, sinister, or rustic versions of Nicholas himself, with a similar costume but with a darker color scheme.


Krampus

In parts of Austria, Krampus is a scary figure, most probably originating in the Pre-Christian Alpine traditions. Local tradition typically portrays these figures as children of poor families, roaming the streets and sledding hills during the holiday festival. They wore black rags and masks, dragging chains behind them, and occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampusumzüge (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past.


Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria wearing goat-hair costumes and carved masks, carrying bundles of sticks used as switches, and swinging cowbells to warn of their approach. They are typically males in their teens and early twenties, and often get very drunk. They roam the streets of this typically quiet town and hit people with their switches. It is not considered wise for young women to go out on this night, as they are popular targets.


n many parts of Croatia, Krampus is described as a devil, wearing chains around his neck, ankles and wrists, and wearing a cloth sack around his waist. As a part of a tradition, when a child receives a gift from St. Nicolas he is given a golden branch to represent his/hers good deeds throughout the year; however, if the child has misbehaved, Krampus will take the gifts for himself and leave only a silver branch to represent the child's bad acts.


Children are commonly scared into sleeping during the time St. Nicolas brings gifts by being told that if they are awake, Krampus will think they have been bad, and will take them away in his sack. In Hungary, the Krampusz is often portrayed as mischievous rather than evil devil, wearing a black suit, a long red tongue, with a tail and little red horns that are funny rather than frightening. The Krampusz wields a Virgács, which is a bunch of golden coloured twigs bound together. Hungarian parents often frighten children with getting a Virgács instead of presents, if they do not behave. By the end of November, you can buy all kinds of Virgács on the streets, usually painted gold, bound by a red ribbon. Getting a Virgács is rather more fun than frightening, and is usually given to all children, along with presents to make them behave.


A first-hand 19th century account of the "Beltznickle" tradition in Allegany County, Maryland, can be found in Brown's Miscellaneous Writings, a collection of essays by Jacob Brown (born 1824). Writing of a period around 1830, Brown says, "we did not hear of" Santa Claus. Instead, the tradition called for a visit by a different character altogether:


He was known as Kriskinkle, Beltznickle and sometimes as the Xmas woman. Children then not only saw the mysterious person, but felt him or rather his stripes upon their backs with his switch. The annual visitor would make his appearance some hours after dark, thoroughly disguised, especially the face, which would sometimes be covered with a hideously ugly phiz - generally wore a female garb - hence the name Christmas woman - sometimes it would be a veritable woman but with masculine force and action.


He or she would be equipped with an ample sack about the shoulders filled with cakes, nuts, and fruits, and a long hazel switch which was supposed to have some kind of a charm in it as well as a sting. One would scatter the goodies upon the floor, and then the scramble would begin by the delighted children, and the other hand would ply the switch upon the backs of the excited youngsters - who would not show a wince, but had it been parental discipline there would have been screams to reach a long distance.


Ruprecht was a common name for the devil in Germany, and Grimm states that “Robin fellow is the same home-sprite whom we in Germany call Knecht Ruprecht and exhibit to children at Christmas...” Knecht Ruprecht first appears in written sources in the 17th century, as a figure in a Nuremberg Christmas procession.


In some of the Ruprecht traditions, the children would be summoned to the door to perform tricks, such as a dance or singing a song to impress upon Santa and Ruprecht that they were indeed good children. Those who performed badly would be beaten soundly by Servant Ruprecht, and those who performed well were given a gift or some treats.


Those who performed badly enough or had committed other misdeeds throughout the year were put into Ruprecht's sack and taken away, variously to Ruprecht’s home in the Black Forest to be consumed later, or to be tossed into a river.


In other versions the children must be asleep, and would awake to find their shoes filled with either sweets, coal, or in some cases a stick. Over time, other customs developed: parents giving kids who misbehaved a stick instead of treats and saying that it was a warning from Nikolaus that "unless you improve by Christmas day, Nikolaus' black servant Ruprecht will come and beat you with the stick and you won't get any Christmas gifts." Often there would be variations idiosyncratic to individual families.


In the arcade game CarnEvil, the boss for the "Rickety Town" level is named Krampus. He resembles a large, horned, clawed, demonic Santa Claus clad in green, and attacks by hurling flaming coals and swinging his bag at the player.


G4 (TV channel) created a Christmas commercial featuring Krampus. In it some carolers sing about Krampus while he enters a house putting the bad children in his sack.
www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion...

1Ch 25:5  All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer (chozeh= to see) in the words of God, to lift up the horn.
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5 years ago  ::  Jan 02, 2010 - 10:19AM #2
he-man
Posts: 3,869

Dec 31, 2009 -- 6:14PM, he-man wrote:


Think you know about Christmas in the year 2009? Think again: This was also shown on the History Channel and you can see the Live beating of the Children and the goulish faces of the Santa Claus helpers.You can also check out the other names used for the helpers (elves) of Santa:“buttenmandl” “knecht reprecht” “Zwarte Piet”  ” Bellzebub”  “Balthazar” .It is an alternate form of the Babylonian king Belshazzar, mentioned in the Book of Daniel.


Often the subject of winter poems and tales, the Companions travel with St. Nicholas (also called Father Christmas or Santa Claus), carrying with them a rod (sometimes a stick and in modern times often a broom) and a sack. They are sometimes dressed in black rags, bearing a black face and unruly black hair. In many contemporary portrayals the companions look like dark, sinister, or rustic versions of Nicholas himself, with a similar costume but with a darker color scheme.


Krampus

In parts of Austria, Krampus is a scary figure, most probably originating in the Pre-Christian Alpine traditions. Local tradition typically portrays these figures as children of poor families, roaming the streets and sledding hills during the holiday festival. They wore black rags and masks, dragging chains behind them, and occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampusumzüge (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past.


Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria wearing goat-hair costumes and carved masks, carrying bundles of sticks used as switches, and swinging cowbells to warn of their approach. They are typically males in their teens and early twenties, and often get very drunk. They roam the streets of this typically quiet town and hit people with their switches. It is not considered wise for young women to go out on this night, as they are popular targets.


n many parts of Croatia, Krampus is described as a devil, wearing chains around his neck, ankles and wrists, and wearing a cloth sack around his waist. As a part of a tradition, when a child receives a gift from St. Nicolas he is given a golden branch to represent his/hers good deeds throughout the year; however, if the child has misbehaved, Krampus will take the gifts for himself and leave only a silver branch to represent the child's bad acts.


Children are commonly scared into sleeping during the time St. Nicolas brings gifts by being told that if they are awake, Krampus will think they have been bad, and will take them away in his sack. In Hungary, the Krampusz is often portrayed as mischievous rather than evil devil, wearing a black suit, a long red tongue, with a tail and little red horns that are funny rather than frightening. The Krampusz wields a Virgács, which is a bunch of golden coloured twigs bound together. Hungarian parents often frighten children with getting a Virgács instead of presents, if they do not behave. By the end of November, you can buy all kinds of Virgács on the streets, usually painted gold, bound by a red ribbon. Getting a Virgács is rather more fun than frightening, and is usually given to all children, along with presents to make them behave.


A first-hand 19th century account of the "Beltznickle" tradition in Allegany County, Maryland, can be found in Brown's Miscellaneous Writings, a collection of essays by Jacob Brown (born 1824). Writing of a period around 1830, Brown says, "we did not hear of" Santa Claus. Instead, the tradition called for a visit by a different character altogether:


He was known as Kriskinkle, Beltznickle and sometimes as the Xmas woman. Children then not only saw the mysterious person, but felt him or rather his stripes upon their backs with his switch. The annual visitor would make his appearance some hours after dark, thoroughly disguised, especially the face, which would sometimes be covered with a hideously ugly phiz - generally wore a female garb - hence the name Christmas woman - sometimes it would be a veritable woman but with masculine force and action.


He or she would be equipped with an ample sack about the shoulders filled with cakes, nuts, and fruits, and a long hazel switch which was supposed to have some kind of a charm in it as well as a sting. One would scatter the goodies upon the floor, and then the scramble would begin by the delighted children, and the other hand would ply the switch upon the backs of the excited youngsters - who would not show a wince, but had it been parental discipline there would have been screams to reach a long distance.


Ruprecht was a common name for the devil in Germany, and Grimm states that “Robin fellow is the same home-sprite whom we in Germany call Knecht Ruprecht and exhibit to children at Christmas...” Knecht Ruprecht first appears in written sources in the 17th century, as a figure in a Nuremberg Christmas procession.


In some of the Ruprecht traditions, the children would be summoned to the door to perform tricks, such as a dance or singing a song to impress upon Santa and Ruprecht that they were indeed good children. Those who performed badly would be beaten soundly by Servant Ruprecht, and those who performed well were given a gift or some treats.


Those who performed badly enough or had committed other misdeeds throughout the year were put into Ruprecht's sack and taken away, variously to Ruprecht’s home in the Black Forest to be consumed later, or to be tossed into a river.


In other versions the children must be asleep, and would awake to find their shoes filled with either sweets, coal, or in some cases a stick. Over time, other customs developed: parents giving kids who misbehaved a stick instead of treats and saying that it was a warning from Nikolaus that "unless you improve by Christmas day, Nikolaus' black servant Ruprecht will come and beat you with the stick and you won't get any Christmas gifts." Often there would be variations idiosyncratic to individual families.


In the arcade game CarnEvil, the boss for the "Rickety Town" level is named Krampus. He resembles a large, horned, clawed, demonic Santa Claus clad in green, and attacks by hurling flaming coals and swinging his bag at the player.


G4 (TV channel) created a Christmas commercial featuring Krampus. In it some carolers sing about Krampus while he enters a house putting the bad children in his sack.


www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion...


To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:


Krampus dragging chains behind them, and occasionally hurling them towards children in their way.
Companions travel with St. Nicholas (also called Father Christmas or Santa Claus), carrying with them a rod (sometimes a stick and in modern times often a broom) and a sack.
These Krampusumzüge (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past.


Krampus is described as a devil, wearing chains around his neck, ankles and wrists, and wearing a cloth sack around his waist.
If they are awake, Krampus will think they have been bad, and will take them away in his sack wearing a black suit, a long red tongue, with a tail and little red horns.


In 1830, Brown says, "we did not hear of" Santa Claus. Instead, the tradition called for a visit by a different character altogether: Kriskinkle, Beltznickle; but felt him or rather his stripes upon their backs with his switch and the other hand would ply the switch upon the backs of the excited youngsters.


Ruprecht was a common name for the devil in Germany and those who performed badly would be beaten soundly by Servant Ruprecht.
Those who performed badly enough or had committed other misdeeds throughout the year were put into Ruprecht's sack and taken away, variously to Ruprecht’s home in the Black Forest to be consumed later, or to be tossed into a river.
Nikolaus' black servant Ruprecht will come and beat you with the stick and you won't get any Christmas gifts."
Some carolers sing about Krampus while he enters a house putting the bad children in his sack.
www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion...

1Ch 25:5  All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer (chozeh= to see) in the words of God, to lift up the horn.
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5 years ago  ::  Jan 02, 2010 - 3:45PM #3
Ken
Posts: 33,859

Jan 2, 2010 -- 10:19AM, he-man wrote:

To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:



Not really. The material you cite makes it clear that Krampus is a companion of Santa Claus and functions as a kind of anti-Santa. Santa brings gifts for good children; Krampus punishes bad children. They're two separate figures.

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5 years ago  ::  Jan 02, 2010 - 7:31PM #4
Merope
Posts: 9,555

This thread was moved from Christian-to-Christian Debate.



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5 years ago  ::  Jan 02, 2010 - 11:40PM #5
amcolph
Posts: 17,320

Jan 2, 2010 -- 3:45PM, Ken wrote:


Jan 2, 2010 -- 10:19AM, he-man wrote:

To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:



Not really. The material you cite makes it clear that Krampus is a companion of Santa Claus and functions as a kind of anti-Santa. Santa brings gifts for good children; Krampus punishes bad children. They're two separate figures.




Similar to Zwarte Piet, the companion to the Dutch Sinterklaas.  He makes the naughty/nice list.

This post contains no advertisements or solicitations.
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5 years ago  ::  Jan 03, 2010 - 3:21PM #6
he-man
Posts: 3,869

Jan 2, 2010 -- 3:45PM, Ken wrote:

Jan 2, 2010 -- 10:19AM, he-man wrote:

To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:


  Not really. The material you cite makes it clear that Krampus is a companion of Santa Claus and functions as a kind of anti-Santa. Santa brings gifts for good children; Krampus punishes bad children. They're two separate figures.


Tell me how MY POST from Chrisian to Christian debate got here when the title of the forum is  "Ancient Mysteries: talk about history, anthropology and archeology relating to spirituality and religions";  when My POST  says, "Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria ???"


see for yourself here:


www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion...


Think you know about Christmas in the year 2009? Think again: This was also shown on the History Channel and you can see the Live beating of the Children and the goulish faces of the Santa Claus helpers.You can also check out the other names used for the helpers (elves) of Santa:“buttenmandl” “knecht reprecht” “Zwarte Piet”  ” Bellzebub”  “Balthazar” .It is an alternate form of the Babylonian king Belshazzar, mentioned in the Book of Daniel.


Often the subject of winter poems and tales, the Companions travel with St. Nicholas (also called Father Christmas or Santa Claus), carrying with them a rod (sometimes a stick and in modern times often a broom) and a sack. They are sometimes dressed in black rags, bearing a black face and unruly black hair. In many contemporary portrayals the companions look like dark, sinister, or rustic versions of Nicholas himself, with a similar costume but with a darker color scheme.


Krampus

In parts of Austria, Krampus is a scary figure, most probably originating in the Pre-Christian Alpine traditions. Local tradition typically portrays these figures as children of poor families, roaming the streets and sledding hills during the holiday festival. They wore black rags and masks, dragging chains behind them, and occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampusumzüge (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past.


Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria wearing goat-hair costumes and carved masks, carrying bundles of sticks used as switches, and swinging cowbells to warn of their approach. They are typically males in their teens and early twenties, and often get very drunk. They roam the streets of this typically quiet town and hit people with their switches. It is not considered wise for young women to go out on this night, as they are popular targets.


n many parts of Croatia, Krampus is described as a devil, wearing chains around his neck, ankles and wrists, and wearing a cloth sack around his waist. As a part of a tradition, when a child receives a gift from St. Nicolas he is given a golden branch to represent his/hers good deeds throughout the year; however, if the child has misbehaved, Krampus will take the gifts for himself and leave only a silver branch to represent the child's bad acts.


Children are commonly scared into sleeping during the time St. Nicolas brings gifts by being told that if they are awake, Krampus will think they have been bad, and will take them away in his sack. In Hungary, the Krampusz is often portrayed as mischievous rather than evil devil, wearing a black suit, a long red tongue, with a tail and little red horns that are funny rather than frightening. The Krampusz wields a Virgács, which is a bunch of golden coloured twigs bound together. Hungarian parents often frighten children with getting a Virgács instead of presents, if they do not behave. By the end of November, you can buy all kinds of Virgács on the streets, usually painted gold, bound by a red ribbon. Getting a Virgács is rather more fun than frightening, and is usually given to all children, along with presents to make them behave.


A first-hand 19th century account of the "Beltznickle" tradition in Allegany County, Maryland, can be found in Brown's Miscellaneous Writings, a collection of essays by Jacob Brown (born 1824). Writing of a period around 1830, Brown says, "we did not hear of" Santa Claus. Instead, the tradition called for a visit by a different character altogether:


He was known as Kriskinkle, Beltznickle and sometimes as the Xmas woman. Children then not only saw the mysterious person, but felt him or rather his stripes upon their backs with his switch. The annual visitor would make his appearance some hours after dark, thoroughly disguised, especially the face, which would sometimes be covered with a hideously ugly phiz - generally wore a female garb - hence the name Christmas woman - sometimes it would be a veritable woman but with masculine force and action.


He or she would be equipped with an ample sack about the shoulders filled with cakes, nuts, and fruits, and a long hazel switch which was supposed to have some kind of a charm in it as well as a sting. One would scatter the goodies upon the floor, and then the scramble would begin by the delighted children, and the other hand would ply the switch upon the backs of the excited youngsters - who would not show a wince, but had it been parental discipline there would have been screams to reach a long distance.


Ruprecht was a common name for the devil in Germany, and Grimm states that “Robin fellow is the same home-sprite whom we in Germany call Knecht Ruprecht and exhibit to children at Christmas...” Knecht Ruprecht first appears in written sources in the 17th century, as a figure in a Nuremberg Christmas procession.


In some of the Ruprecht traditions, the children would be summoned to the door to perform tricks, such as a dance or singing a song to impress upon Santa and Ruprecht that they were indeed good children. Those who performed badly would be beaten soundly by Servant Ruprecht, and those who performed well were given a gift or some treats.


Those who performed badly enough or had committed other misdeeds throughout the year were put into Ruprecht's sack and taken away, variously to Ruprecht’s home in the Black Forest to be consumed later, or to be tossed into a river.


In other versions the children must be asleep, and would awake to find their shoes filled with either sweets, coal, or in some cases a stick. Over time, other customs developed: parents giving kids who misbehaved a stick instead of treats and saying that it was a warning from Nikolaus that "unless you improve by Christmas day, Nikolaus' black servant Ruprecht will come and beat you with the stick and you won't get any Christmas gifts." Often there would be variations idiosyncratic to individual families.


In the arcade game CarnEvil, the boss for the "Rickety Town" level is named Krampus. He resembles a large, horned, clawed, demonic Santa Claus clad in green, and attacks by hurling flaming coals and swinging his bag at the player.


G4 (TV channel) created a Christmas commercial featuring Krampus. In it some carolers sing about Krampus while he enters a house putting the bad children in his sack.



To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:


Krampus dragging chains behind them, and occasionally hurling them towards children in their way.
Companions travel with St. Nicholas (also called Father Christmas or Santa Claus), carrying with them a rod (sometimes a stick and in modern times often a broom) and a sack.
These Krampusumzüge (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past.


Krampus is described as a devil, wearing chains around his neck, ankles and wrists, and wearing a cloth sack around his waist.
If they are awake, Krampus will think they have been bad, and will take them away in his sack wearing a black suit, a long red tongue, with a tail and little red horns.


In 1830, Brown says, "we did not hear of" Santa Claus. Instead, the tradition called for a visit by a different character altogether: Kriskinkle, Beltznickle; but felt him or rather his stripes upon their backs with his switch and the other hand would ply the switch upon the backs of the excited youngsters.


Ruprecht was a common name for the devil in Germany and those who performed badly would be beaten soundly by Servant Ruprecht.
Those who performed badly enough or had committed other misdeeds throughout the year were put into Ruprecht's sack and taken away, variously to Ruprecht’s home in the Black Forest to be consumed later, or to be tossed into a river.
Nikolaus' black servant Ruprecht will come and beat you with the stick and you won't get any Christmas gifts."
Some carolers sing about Krampus while he enters a house putting the bad children in his sack.

1Ch 25:5  All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer (chozeh= to see) in the words of God, to lift up the horn.
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5 years ago  ::  Jan 03, 2010 - 3:43PM #7
Ken
Posts: 33,859

Jan 3, 2010 -- 3:21PM, he-man wrote:


Jan 2, 2010 -- 3:45PM, Ken wrote:

Jan 2, 2010 -- 10:19AM, he-man wrote:

To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:


  Not really. The material you cite makes it clear that Krampus is a companion of Santa Claus and functions as a kind of anti-Santa. Santa brings gifts for good children; Krampus punishes bad children. They're two separate figures.


Tell me how MY POST from Chrisian to Christian debate got here when the title of the forum is  "Ancient Mysteries: talk about history, anthropology and archeology relating to spirituality and religions";  when My POST  says, "Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria ???"




Merope moved it. The content is clearly anthropological and historical. There's no need to make a fuss about it, and certainly no need to repost it. We've moved on to the discussion stage.

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5 years ago  ::  Jan 03, 2010 - 3:48PM #8
he-man
Posts: 3,869

Jan 3, 2010 -- 3:43PM, Ken wrote:

Jan 3, 2010 -- 3:21PM, he-man wrote:

Jan 2, 2010 -- 3:45PM, Ken wrote:

Jan 2, 2010 -- 10:19AM, he-man wrote:

To sum it all up here is your SANTA CLAUS:


  Not really. The material you cite makes it clear that Krampus is a companion of Santa Claus and functions as a kind of anti-Santa. Santa brings gifts for good children; Krampus punishes bad children. They're two separate figures.


Tell me how MY POST from Chrisian to Christian debate got here when the title of the forum is  "Ancient Mysteries: talk about history, anthropology and archeology relating to spirituality and religions";  when My POST  says, "Today, in Schladming, a town in Styria, over 1200 "Krampus" gather from all over Austria ???"


Merope moved it. The content is clearly anthropological and historical. There's no need to make a fuss about it, and certainly no need to repost it. We've moved on to the discussion stage. 


Not quite; do you know what anthropology  means???


I think you just wanted to cover it up so the obvious superstitous Christmas would not be revealed as being hypocritics .


anthropology (study of the development of the human race) archeology or the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures


This a a PRESENT day event presented on the History Channel last month.


www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion...

1Ch 25:5  All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer (chozeh= to see) in the words of God, to lift up the horn.
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5 years ago  ::  Jan 03, 2010 - 4:01PM #9
Ken
Posts: 33,859

Jan 3, 2010 -- 3:48PM, he-man wrote:

Not quite; do you know what anthropology  means???


Of course I do. Anthropology is "the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind." As your original post falls under the heading of cultural anthropology, it is entirely appropriate to this forum. What's more, it was moved here by a moderator, and it is a violation of the Rules of Conduct to publicly dispute the actions of moderators. If you're unhappy, you should send a private message to Merope and ask her to reconsider her decision.


I responded to your post in good faith when it appeared here. I expect you to do the same to my response.  

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5 years ago  ::  Jan 03, 2010 - 4:06PM #10
he-man
Posts: 3,869

Jan 3, 2010 -- 4:01PM, Ken wrote:


Jan 3, 2010 -- 3:48PM, he-man wrote:

Not quite; do you know what anthropology  means???


Of course I do. Anthropology is "the science that deals with the origins, physical and cultural development, biological characteristics, and social customs and beliefs of humankind." As your original post falls under the heading of cultural anthropology, it is entirely appropriate to this forum. What's more, it was moved here by a moderator, and it is a violation of the Rules of Conduct to publicly dispute the actions of moderators. If you're unhappy, you should send a private message to Merope and ask her to reconsider her decision.


I responded to your post in good faith when it appeared here. I expect you to do the same to my response.


Thank you but you did not wait for me to finish:  archeology or the branch of anthropology that studies prehistoric people and their cultures


This is a  PRESENT day event presented on the History Channel last month.



www.bing.com/reference/semhtml/Companion..




1Ch 25:5  All these were the sons of Heman the king’s seer (chozeh= to see) in the words of God, to lift up the horn.
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