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3 years ago  ::  Oct 06, 2011 - 4:26PM #21
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

Tariq ibn Ziyad: The Man who Gave Gibraltar Its Name


Thursday, March 31, 2011





Gibriltar is an area south of Spain that is under the British jurisdiction. Its name comes from the Arabic name “Jabal Tariq” and was named after the famous Muslim general Tariq ibn Ziyad, who conquered the Iberian peninsula in 711 A.D. At the time Tariq ibn Ziyad, a 75-year old man, was one of the greatest Muslim generals who served under the North African governor Musa ibn Nusayr. A former Christian who converted to Islam, Musa believed that his armies should not advance until he was sure that people under his dominion were comfortable living under his command.



Tariq ibn Ziyad and 7,000 soliders arrived in the Iberian peninsula on April 11, 711 near the area today known as Gibriltar. Upon his arrival he requested reinforcements from Musa ibn Nusayr, who in turn sent an additional 5,000 soldiers..........................................


................................ Click here to read the rest

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3 years ago  ::  Nov 02, 2011 - 4:38PM #22
BDboy
Posts: 6,280
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3 years ago  ::  Nov 09, 2011 - 11:01PM #23
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

            


Islam in America… Long, Forgotten History

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3 years ago  ::  Dec 27, 2011 - 5:10AM #24
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

Wanted to share a nice article about prophet Moses (Musa in Arabic-PBUH). --BDboy


 



Musa; Eloquence on a Different Level


 







As-salamu `alaykum wa rahmatullah


 


Prophet Musa (`alayhisalam) is often described as being strong, tough and a force against the harshness that surrounded him. See, he was destined to go up against the barbaric Pharaoh, so Allah `azza wa jall raised him in a way where he’d be fit to face the horrors and physical calamities that were to occur to him in his time (surviving persecution, the killing of his opponent, exile, coming back to the Pharoah, leading Bani Israel from oppression etc).


But one interesting characteristic of Musa (`alayhisalam) is that he was not eloquent nor did he possess fluency or ease of speech (which is in contrast to the Prophet Muhammad (s) who was granted ‘jawami’ al-kalim’, i.e. high eloquence).


Musa acknowledged this impediment and feared that Pharaoh would use it against him. Remember, he was a Messenger delivering a message - and naturally it would be that much more difficult to get across your message if you cannot speak as well as your opponent. It only makes the battle harder. Let’s look at Musa’s acknowledgement of this:


He said in his supplication to Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala:



وَأَخِي هَارُونُ هُوَ أَفْصَحُ مِنِّي لِسَانًا فَأَرْسِلْهُ مَعِيَ رِدْءًا يُصَدِّقُنِي ۖ إِنِّي أَخَافُ أَن يُكَذِّبُونِ
“And my brother Aaron is more fluent than me in tongue, so send him with me as support, verifying me. Indeed, I fear that they will deny me.” [al-Qasas: 34]



He feared that the Message would be denied on account of his speech defect. And indeed, he was denied by Pharaoh and his elites. In fact, Pharaoh used this as an insult against Musa and said:



أَمْ أَنَا خَيْرٌ مِّنْ هَٰذَا الَّذِي هُوَ مَهِينٌ وَلَا يَكَادُ يُبِينُ
“Or am I [not] better than this one who is insignificant and hardly makes himself clear?” [al-Zukhruf: 52]



So, why does this characteristic of Musa interest us?


Because subhan’Allah, perhaps this is why Allah `azza wa jall singled him out and spoke to him directly. Pharaoh was arrogant and saw himself above speaking to Musa because he ‘couldn’t make himself clear’, and so Allah honoured Musa by raising to up to Mount Sinai and speaking to him directly – to show that despite the speech impediment, he was worthy of conversing with his Lord.



وَرُسُلًا قَدْ قَصَصْنَاهُمْ عَلَيْكَ مِن قَبْلُ وَرُسُلًا لَّمْ نَقْصُصْهُمْ عَلَيْكَ ۚ وَكَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مُوسَىٰ تَكْلِيمًا
“And [We sent] Messengers about whom We have related to you before and Messengers about whom We have not related to you. And Allah spoke to Moses with a direct speech.” [al-Nisa: 164]



Hence Musa is forever remembered as ‘Kaleemullah’ – the one who conversed with Allah.


A lesson: Sometimes, people may disregard you and belittle you, thinking that you are not worthy of something, but in some future turn of events, Allah `azza wa jall will raise you and bring you out as better. He will draw you closer to Him and give you from His Mercy, and also make clear to the people what you are truly deserving of. Let us humble ourselves and never look down on anyone, because not everyone’s reality is clear, and perhaps the ones we look down upon are a million times better and more deserving than us in the Sight of Allah `azza wa jall


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3 years ago  ::  Jan 09, 2012 - 1:30PM #25
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

KSU professor garners high academic, medical honors


By GHAZANFAR ALI KHAN | ARAB NEWS



RIYADH: A King Saud University (KSU) professor has achieved a distinguished record of academic achievements in the fields of both basic and clinical medical sciences. Prof. Sultan Ayoub Meo has written eight major medical books and authored 65 scientific publications besides holding MBBS, M.Phil, PhD, postgraduate degrees in medical education and four fellowships of highly respected Royal Colleges of the UK and Ireland.



“Meo is also recognized as an outstanding faculty member and has implemented a string of innovations to the teaching of medical science, especially respiratory physiology,” said Dr. Javid Akhtar, a KSU professor, while speaking at a brief felicitation ceremony at the local Marhaba Restaurant here on Thursday.


Meo is highly respected and renowned in government and academic circles all over the world, especially in Pakistan and Saudi Arabia, for his contributions to research projects and his orientation to promote medical science, education and research in the Muslim world. His areas of interest in research are respiratory physiology, diabetes mellitus and medical education.


He has also served as an editorial board member of the Saudi Medical Journal.


Meo, who is credited with the publication of 65 scientific papers in peer reviewed national/international bio-medical journals, is currently the associate editor of the International Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (IJDM), which is a major publication that features scientific articles and reviews in the field of diabetes mellitus.


Meo’s scientific papers have been warmly received in Bahrain, the United Arab Emirates, Pakistan, China, Turkey, the United Kingdom and the United States. He was recently invited as a keynote speaker at the 2nd World Congress on Diabetes and Metabolism in Philadelphia.


Meo has been associated with KSU for the past 10 years and is currently a professor and consultant in clinical physiology in the College of Medicine. In addition to receiving Fellowship of Royal College of Physicians (FRCP) of London, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dublin, he also obtained a higher postgraduate degree in medical education from University of Dundee, Scotland.


“Achieving such respectable and unique academic honors is rare in the field of medical science,” said Dr. Akhtar. On his career achievements, Meo said he gives credit mainly to KSU, his family and parents back home and to his early education in Pakistan.


According to Meo, the Riyadh-based university has been constantly improving and contributing to research and development projects in various fields. The university has been playing a major role in improving the quality of research and productivity in terms of end results.


“I am indeed privileged to work in this institution with faculty of international repute,” said Meo while adding that the university’s administration understands and recognizes the importance of scientific research, extends all support to research endeavors by increasing funding, and encourages faculty as well as students to engage in research projects more intensively.


He pointed out that KSU remains the Islamic world’s leading university on the Academic Ranking of World Universities (ARWU), commonly known as the Shanghai ranking.


The annual ranking, published in mid-August, listed KSU ahead of powerful contenders such as the universities of Istanbul, Tehran, Cairo and Malaya in Malaysia. In the latest ARWU rankings, KSU placed among the best 300 universities in the world, at No. 261, a standing never achieved by an Arab university.


 


[ Source: arabnews.com/saudiarabia/article559644.e... ]

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3 years ago  ::  Mar 11, 2012 - 4:27PM #26
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

A Bronx Tale


After the congregants of an Orthodox synagogue could no longer afford their rent, they found help in the local mosque.




Moderated by Merope on Dec 20, 2013 - 12:33PM
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3 years ago  ::  May 18, 2012 - 4:03PM #27
BDboy
Posts: 6,280
A Culinary Exploration of Andalucia\'s Three Cultures: s3.hubimg.com

Ancient Cordoba: A City of Three Cultures

 

Saturday May 05 2012 22:16:03 PM BDT


By Azizul Jalil


�To Cordoba belong all the beauty and ornaments that delight the eye or dazzle the sight. Her long line of Sultans, form her crown of glory; her necklace is strung with the pearls, which her poets have gathered from the ocean of language; her dress is of the banners of learning, well-knit together by her men of science; and the masters of every art and industry are the hem of her garments.� Stanley Lane-Poole, British orientalist and archeologist (1854-1931)After a fast and comfortable train ride of less than two hours going south-west from Madrid through scenic Andalucian countryside with thousands of olive trees, vineyards and finely cultivated land containing low, green crops in the early spring, we reached Cordoba in the morning. As in the rest of Europe, Spanish railway stations are spacious and user-friendly and people widely use public transports. Stations were crowded and the trains fully occupied. In fact, we had to postpone our travel by one day because even for the hourly trains, tickets were not availablCordoba was founded by the Romans in 152 B.C. who left a lasting legacy in the large and impressive Puente Romano (bridge) across the Guadalquivir River. Declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1984, it was the cultural custodian during the dark ages and a witness to the dawn of western civilization. It was once one of the most important cities in the Islamic world, second only to Baghdad.

 


 Mihrab

 


In the 10th century, Cordoba was the largest city in Western Europe with about half a million residents and a most sophisticated civilization, enriched by the contributions and learning of Muslim, Jewish and Christian scholars. During the Muslim rule in the 8th to the 15th centuries, Cordova was rightly considered as the place of three cultures. A short taxi ride took us to the old Alcazar (meaning a fort and palace) of Cordoba. There we were met by a fine local guide who stayed with us through the entire day-long visit to the fort, the Great Mosque, called the Mezquita- later converted into a cathedral, the Jewish quarters and the Synagogue- all within a reasonable walking distance of each other. First built by the Visigoths, a Germanic group who settled in Spain, the fort was later expanded by the Moors into a large compound with gardens and a library after they conquered the territory in the 8th century. After the defeat of the Moors in Spain, Alcazar was the summer home of the catholic monarchs- King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. We saw the magnificent sloping gardens at the back, with statues, fountains and channels for watering the plants by gravitation. It was in this fort that Christopher Columbus first met Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand in 1485to seek their assistance in his famous voyage of discovery of what he thought would be a direct trade route to India. A large statue of these three figures commemorating the historic event has been located in the garden of the fort. Due to doubts in the court about Columbus� calculations, it was not until 1492 that he actually received the royal commission for his voyage. We were accompanied in the tour by an interesting, elderly Scottish couple who annually comes on holiday to Malaga, a beautiful seaside resort in the south of Spain. Despite the retired brigadier�s many surgeries in the spine and knees and his walking with the help of a stick, he still rides a Harley Davidson motor cycle, which he carries in a crate even during his vacations.We have seen many a historic mosque-in Cairo, Istanbul, Lahore and other places but never have we seen such a colourful and gigantic mosque, which since the defeat of the Moors has been converted into a cathedral holding regular service. It now represents two religions. The beautiful mosque appeared to be painted in pink and white stripes, zebra -like. It remains as impressive as ever, with its exquisite mihrab (niche in the wall pointing to Mecca). The minarets of the mosque were left intact by subsequent Christian rulers of Spain who followed the Muslim Arab and the Moorish kings. However, it was covered on all sides and a church tower put on its top. Unlike the Babri Mosque in India and the Buddha statue at Bamian in Afghanistan, this large edifice was spared the wanton destruction that does not respect historic objects of art, culture and faith.The mosque, in which forty-thousand people could pray, was built and expanded over 250 years. It was also a public building, a meeting place and a school. Material for the forest of 1200 marble and stone columns and arches, particularly in later periods, were scavenged from the Roman ruins in the region. The reason is that the treasury ran out of funds for the mosque and had to use old and cheaper material in its expansion. The result, as our tour guide pointed out, was that many of the columns and arches were not uniform and slightly varied in length and width, though it might not be noticed by a casual tourist viewing the awesome structure. It is considered as a spiritual oasis, an architectural abstraction and a metaphor for infinity. Originally open on all sides, it was closed up later. Though it still appears vast and endless, we wondered how lighted and airy it must have been before.Juderia, the Jewish quarter, had a special charm with its small white washed buildings, flowers in the windows and balconies and very narrow stony alleys and lanes. The statue of Maimonides is a centre of tourist attraction. He was a genius and a philosopher, who wrote The Guide of the Perplexed in Arabic to reconcile the theologies of Judaism and Islam. The area was mostly destroyed by the catholic monarchs but we visited a few ancient houses and one surviving, well- preserved synagogue built in 1316. Interestingly, a separate gallery at the top, permitted females to worship without any distraction.Since we had gone to Cordova on a day�s visit, it was not possible to watch Flamenco dancing or bull fighting for which the city is quite famous. While waiting for our train to Madrid at the Cordoba train station in the late afternoon, we met an American lady married to a Spanish writer living in a close by small town. She praised the uniqueness of the city of three religions but lamented the fact that a fine specimen of architecture at the mosque was enclosed and could not be viewed. Apart from religious sensitivities, this high-minded liberal was concerned about aesthetics, and the beauty of the structure being denied to posterity. Such a rational approach to the world�s many conflicts is indeed a rarity!----------------

Azizul JalilE Mail : monoo123@yahoo.com



 Córdoba view from Torre de la Calahorra
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2 years ago  ::  May 24, 2013 - 1:25PM #28
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005. ix + 264 pp. $60.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-8047-5159-9.

 

 


Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2005. ix + 264 pp. $60.00 (cloth), ISBN 978-0-8047-5159-9.

 


  • Hardcover: 280 pages
  • Publisher: Stanford University Press; 1 edition (November 30, 2005)
  • Language: English
  • ISBN-10: 0804751595
  • ISBN-13: 978-0804751599


Reviewed by Eva Goldschmidt (Department of Chinese Studies, Heidelberg University)
Published on H-War (January, 2007)
File:Capture of the Provincial Capital Qujing.jpg


Involuntary Rebels


The Panthay Rebellion took place between 1856 and 1873 in Yunnan Province, situated in the southwestern rim of China. Traditionally there are two strands of explanations why the Panthay rebellion took place: one claims that the uprising was rooted in deep-rooted Yunnan Muslim hatred of the Han Chinese, the other claims that the rebellion was purely religiously motivated. Atwill challenges both assumptions by analyzing the multi-ethnic and socioeconomic context in which the Yunnan Muslims lived and prospered before the rebellion, and how they expressed their regional identity, faith, and resistance during the years of the uprising.


Some keywords need to be explained to facilitate the understanding of the specific circumstances of the uprising. British travelers to the Dali Sultanate and Yunnan baptized the uprising as the Panthay Rebellion. This designation is largely unknown to the Chinese scholarly world. The etymological root of the word is probably the Burmese pa-ti for Muslim. In classical and modern Chinese scholarship, the rebellion is known as the Muslim uprising or the Rebellion of Du Wenxiu, the founder of the Dali Sultanate and the foremost religious and political leader of that time. The Chinese word for Muslim is Hui, rooted in the ethnonym for Uyghurs at the northwestern border of the empire. In the narrow Yunnan context, Hui has a broad ethno-religious meaning, while the word mu-min stands for the narrow religious meaning of believer. Yi is a generic Chinese term for all the fifty-six indigenous minority groups living in the province. Their headmen were assigned Chinese seals and titles, and they were loosely connected with the local Chinese administration.


In his first four chapters, Atwill introduces the reader to the geographic and economic frame in which the rebellion took place and which is vital for understanding further events and the course of the rebellion. The setting of the rebellion was Yunnan Province, the name of which means "South of the Clouds." This represented the most southwesterly outreach of Qing dynasty power. The province only became a part of the Chinese empire as late as the thirteenth century. Until the reign of Qing emperor Yongzheng (1723-35), large parts of the province were administered by indigenous headmen with very little interference by the administration in the provincial capital Kunming. The topographic peculiarities of Yunnan (high mountain ranges, no navigable rivers, no roads for wheeled traffic) caused and furthered the development of strong regional ties among the populations of the eastern, western and southern parts of Yunnan respectively. They reckoned themselves, foremost, as inhabitants of a specific region and then as Yunnanese. In historical treatises, Yunnan is described as the geographic union of a regional tripartite. This attitude had a lasting and decisive influence on the course and outcome of the rebellion. Economically the province was not heartland bound, but dependent on the caravan trade with Southeast Asia and Tibet. The rich copper mines in the east were of special interest to the Chinese government. The whole economy was based on a delicate balance between the Yunnan Hui, the indigenous Yi and the Han Chinese. The Hui followed the Mongol conquerors to Yunnan and engaged primarily and successfully in caravan trade and mining. Two factors destroyed the traditional living and working arrangements of the province: massive in-migration from the overpopulated provinces of the Chinese heartland and the abolition of the headman-system. The province's population surged from four million to ten million between 1775 and 1850. In stark contrast to former Han Chinese in-migrants, they were assertive of their own culture and their place in the society and economy of Yunnan and caused both major chagrin among the old residents and major environmental degradation. The imperial program of administrative consolidation caused further alienation between the indigenous Yi and the provincial government.


In the following chapter, Atwill analyses three uprisings which took place between 1818 to 1833, initiated by Yunnanese Han-Chinese and indigenous groups to underpin his thesis that socioeconomic reasons affecting all traditional inhabitants triggered the rebellion.


Chapters 5 and 6 describe the new quality and targets of the ever-spiraling violence and growing tensions within the province. Incidents no longer occurred at certain remote places and in a spontaneous diffuse manner, but were well orchestrated by the Chinese brotherhoods, took place in larger settlements and cities, and were solely targeted at the Hui minority and were followed by major bloodshed. The government officials and the local gentry for the most part supported the anti-Hui violence. Successive governors-general remained for too short a term in the province to investigate the incidents carefully and could punish only the worst riots. The bloodshed culminated in the Kunming Massacre of 1856, leaving eight thousand Hui dead and the whole province on the verge of anarchy. The provincial government's foremost task was to secure the access to the copper mines in the eastern part of Yunnan and avoid any encroachment on neighboring provinces.


Chapters 7 and 8 describe the course of the rebellion and its main protagonists. Atwill provides ample evidence to support his thesis that the rebellion was a multi-ethnic uprising with strong regional characteristics. Ma Rulong was the leading military character of the rebellion. A military licentiate, he joined forces with Du Wenxiu and Ma Dexin to avenge the massacres among his religious brethren. From the outset, the rebellion revealed its major weaknesses. Since they had no unifying ideology, neither secular nor religious, each regional Hui leader fought with his multi-ethnic group of followers and pursued his private goals and ambitions. Ma Rulong was no exception to this rule. He refused any official position within the hierarchy of the newly founded Pingnan State, but returned to Kunming and laid siege to the city. Even though he was in the superior position, he surrendered in 1862 to the Qing governor general and accepted a position in the Qing military hierarchy. The Chinese sources offer no evidence as to why he threw his lot in with the Qing government. Du Wenxiu, the premier political and religious leader of the uprising, succeeded in establishing his own Pingnan (Pacify the South) state at Dali. He called himself Generalissimo of All Armed Forces and Cavalry in Chinese and Leader of All Muslims in Arabic. European travelers called him Suleiman. He had traveled in the Middle East and was fluent in Chinese and Arabic. Being very aware that his sultanate could only survive with the support of Han Chinese and the Yi groups, he offered them positions within his administration, made visible by newly created seals and uniforms, and the abolition of shaving the forehead. The economic basis of his sultanate was the traditional overland trade. Negotiations between Kunming and Dali ended in a stalemate because no party was ready to surrender. The sad end of the Pingnan State and the reassertion of Qing power is described in the final chapter of the book. Between 1867 and 1869, the short-lived Pingnan state reached the zenith of its power. It had strengthened its control over the eastern and southern part of the province and laid siege to Kunming. The defeat of the Taiping rebels enabled the imperial court to send more troops and a new governor general, Cen Yuying, who ended the siege and pursued the fleeing Pingnan troops to Dali. Du Wenxiu handed himself over to avoid major bloodshed among his followers. After his decapitation, Dali was razed to the grounds and the rebellion officially ended.


Atwill's theses are based and supported by the widest array of Chinese and Western sources accessible. The records and analyses of Christian missionaries, who lived and worked in Yunnan for decades, are of special value and provide deep insights. Imperial edicts, official records, local gazetteers and British travelogues complete the picture. In other words, he has exhausted all the available sources. Open-mindedly, he has not selected one of the contemporary theories about inter-ethnic strife (or border strife) and arranged the facts neatly around it. He has also resisted the temptation to view the Panthay Rebellion as the beginning of a nascent Chinese crescent, stretching from the northwest to the southeastern border of Yunnan. Atwill's book about the Panthay Rebellion is valuable reading for persons interested in the economic and political history of minorities in China and their relationship with successive Imperial governments and in particular the history of Muslims in China.


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2 years ago  ::  Jun 05, 2013 - 6:56AM #29
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

Mar 5, 2010 -- 1:29AM, BDboy wrote:


One more            


www.jews-for-allah.org/




 


Comparative Religion Led Jewish Man to Islam                       


Interview with Jeffrey Glazer


 www.onislam.net/english/reading-islam/my...

Moderated by Merope on Dec 20, 2013 - 12:26PM
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1 year ago  ::  Aug 22, 2013 - 10:49AM #30
BDboy
Posts: 6,280

Ayshah & Muhammad - The True Love Story for Eternity


The Truth About the Age of Ayshah and Her Marriage to Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him). by Yusuf Estes

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