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Switch to Forum Live View Origen's Hexapla and the Divine Name
2 years ago  ::  Mar 24, 2015 - 10:33PM #1
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

This subject has been discussed on other threads and including from post 158 in my thread on the 237 occurrences of the Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures in NW - where FPD also ignores our referencing a pre-Christian copy of LXX which contains the Divine Name as IAO - but in this thread I am zeroing in on the Hexapla.   From post 158: 


FPD - Concerning actual evidence concerning Origen's Hexapla, you posted:


In a few fragment copies (Q, 86, 88, 243mg, 264) of the Hexapla, the Tetragrammaton is sometimes rendered by imitative Greek letters: PIPI.  But this is not found in any LXX versions. As to the Watchtower’s claim that the original LXX consistently and invariably transcribed the Divine name in Hebrew letters, there is NO evidence at all.


_____________________


If you make a claim about our beliefs, please post the link to our website on that belief....


I reference our literature this time because of your false accusations about us.  For example, your implication the other versions (other than Aquila's)  in the Hexapla were LXX versions is false - we report accurately which versions are in Origen's Hexapla:



wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2001529?q=He...



Excerpt:



 He is most famous for his Hexapla, a mammoth, 50-volume edition of the Hebrew Scriptures. Origen arranged the Hexapla in six parallel columns containing: (1) the Hebrew and Aramaic text, (2) a Greek transliteration of that text, (3) Aquila’s Greek version, (4) Symmachus’ Greek version, (5) the Greek Septuagint, which Origen revised to correspond more exactly to the Hebrew text, and (6) Theodotion’s Greek version. “By this combination of texts,” wrote Bible scholar John Hort, “Origen hoped to throw light on the meaning of many passages in which a Greek reader would be either bewildered or misled if he had only the Septuagint before him.”



Of course, we reference other scholars, as I do also - on this type of scholarly research - e.g. from our Bible dictionary:



wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200002391?q...





Why is the divine name in its full form not in any available ancient manuscript of the Christian Greek Scriptures?






The argument long presented was that the inspired writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures made their quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures on the basis of the Septuagint, and that, since this version substituted Kyʹri·os or The·osʹ for the Tetragrammaton, these writers did not use the name Jehovah. As has been shown, this argument is no longer valid. Commenting on the fact that the oldest fragments of the Greek Septuagint do contain the divine name in its Hebrew form, Dr. P. Kahle says: “We now know that the Greek Bible text [the Septuagint] as far as it was written by Jews for Jews did not translate the Divine name by kyrios, but the Tetragrammaton written with Hebrew or Greek letters was retained in such MSS [manuscripts]. It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more.” (The Cairo Geniza, Oxford, 1959, p. 222) When did this change in the Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures take place?






It evidently took place in the centuries following the death of Jesus and his apostles. In Aquila’s Greek version, dating from the second century C.E., the Tetragrammaton still appeared in Hebrew characters. Around 245 C.E., the noted scholar Origen produced his Hexapla, a six-column reproduction of the inspired Hebrew Scriptures: (1) in their original Hebrew and Aramaic, accompanied by (2) a transliteration into Greek, and by the Greek versions of (3) Aquila, (4) Symmachus, (5) the Septuagint, and (6) Theodotion. On the evidence of the fragmentary copies now known, Professor W. G. Waddell says: “In Origen’s Hexapla . . . the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and LXX [Septuagint] all represented JHWH by ΠΙΠΙ; in the second column of the Hexapla the Tetragrammaton was written in Hebrew characters.” (The Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford, Vol. XLV, [July-October] 1944, pp. 158, 159) Others believe the original text of Origen’s Hexapla used Hebrew characters for the Tetragrammaton in all its columns. Origen himself, in his comments on Psalm 2:2, stated that “in the most accurate manuscripts THE NAME occurs in Hebrew characters, yet not in today’s Hebrew [characters], but in the most ancient ones.”—Patrologia Graeca, Paris, 1862, Vol. XII, col. 1104.






As late as the fourth century C.E., Jerome, the translator of the Latin Vulgate, says in his prologue to the books of Samuel and Kings: “And we find the name of God, the Tetragrammaton [i.e., יהוה], in certain Greek volumes even to this day expressed in ancient letters.” In a letter written at Rome, 384 C.E., Jerome states: “The ninth [name of God] is the Tetragrammaton, which they considered [a·nek·phoʹne·ton], that is, unspeakable, and it is written with these letters, Iod, He, Vau, He. Certain ignorant ones, because of the similarity of the characters, when they would find it in Greek books, were accustomed to read ΠΙΠΙ [Greek letters corresponding to the Roman letters PIPI].”—Papyrus Grecs Bibliques, by F. Dunand, Cairo, 1966, p. 47, ftn. 4.


_______________


In this thread I will first post from our literature and see if anyone actually disagrees on a specific point in our literature - then I will post additional evidence from other scholarly sources.


Please limit responses to the Hexapla in this thread (i.e. the 6 versions in the Hexapla).


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200004554?q...


Excerpt:



The Greek “Septuagint.” The Greek Septuagint (often designated LXX) was used by Greek-speaking Jews and Christians in Egypt and elsewhere. Reportedly, work on it commenced in Egypt in the days of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.E.), when, according to tradition, the Pentateuch thereof was translated into Greek by 72 Jewish scholars. Later, the number 70 somehow came to be used, and the version of the Pentateuch was referred to as the Septuagint, meaning “Seventy.” The other books of the Hebrew Scriptures (by various translators whose style varied from quite literal to rather free rendition) were gradually added until translation of the entire Hebrew Scriptures had finally been completed during the second century B.C.E. and perhaps by 150 B.C.E. Thereafter the entire work came to be known as the Septuagint. This version is often quoted by writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Apocryphal writings were evidently inserted in the Greek Septuagint sometime after it was first completed.—See APOCRYPHA.




One of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint is Papyrus 957, the Rylands Papyrus iii. 458, preserved in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, England. It is of the second century B.C.E. and consists of fragments of Deuteronomy (23:24–24:3; 25:1-3; 26:12, 17-19; 28:31-33). Another manuscript, of the first century B.C.E., is Papyrus Fouad 266 (possessed by the Société Egyptienne de Papyrologie, Cairo), containing parts of the second half of Deuteronomy according to the Greek Septuagint. In various places therein, the Tetragrammaton (YHWH in English) of the divine name is found in a form of square Hebrew characters right within the Greek script.—See PICTURE, Vol. 1, p. 326; JEHOVAH.




The Greek Septuagint has thus been preserved in numerous manuscripts, many fragmentary, others fairly complete. Notably, the Septuagint texts are preserved in the three famous uncial manuscripts written on vellum—the Vatican Manuscript No. 1209 and the Sinaitic Manuscript, both of the fourth century C.E., and the Alexandrine Manuscript of the fifth century C.E. The Septuagint as found in the Vatican Manuscript No. 1209 is almost complete; part of the Hebrew Scriptures once included in the Sinaitic Manuscript has been lost; that in the Alexandrine Manuscript is rather complete, though lacking parts of Genesis, First Samuel, and Psalms.




Later Greek versions. In the second century, Aquila, a Jewish proselyte of Pontus, made a new and very literal Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. Except for fragments and quotations thereof by early writers, it has perished. Another Greek translation of the same century was produced by Theodotion. His was apparently a revision of the Septuagint or some other Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, though he considered the Hebrew text itself. No complete copy of Theodotion’s version is extant. Another Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures of which no complete copy is extant was that of Symmachus. His rendition, probably translated about 200 C.E., endeavored to convey the right sense rather than to be literal.




About 245 C.E., Origen, the noted scholar of Alexandria, Egypt, completed a mammoth multiple version of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Hexapla (which means “sixfold”). Though fragments of it are extant, no complete manuscript copy has survived. Origen arranged the text in six parallel columns containing (1) the consonantal Hebrew text, (2) a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew text, (3) Aquila’s Greek version, (4) Symmachus’ Greek version, (5) the Septuagint, revised by Origen to correspond more exactly to the Hebrew text, and (6) Theodotion’s Greek version. In the Psalms, Origen used anonymous versions he called Quinta, Sexta, and Septima. The Quinta and Sexta were also employed in other books.


[I included comments on the Septuagint (=LXX) since column 5 of the Hexapla is the LXX - but prefer responses on the Hexapla, with LXX as a relevant tangent, and with Symachus, Aquila and Theodotion versions of especial interest to me]


The following picture of Symmachus Version is found here:


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1102012145



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2 years ago  ::  Mar 24, 2015 - 10:54PM #2
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

A Symmachus fragment containing God’s name



Symmachus fragment containing the divine name at Psalm 69:31, third or fourth century C.E.


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2 years ago  ::  Mar 24, 2015 - 11:08PM #3
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

Concerning Symmachus Version (=Sym) -


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1001060075?q...


Excerpt:



(9) SymP. Vindob. G. 39777 renders the divine name by the Tetragrammaton written in archaic Hebrew characters ( or ) in the following places: Ps 69:13, 30, 31. This fragment of a parchment roll with part of Ps 69 in Symmachus (68 in LXX), kept in the Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, was dated to the third or fourth century C.E. It was published by Dr. Carl Wessely in Studien zur Palaeographie und Papyruskunde, Vol. XI., Leipzig, 1911, p. 171.




Here we reproduce the fragment of this papyrus containing the divine name. (see above)


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2 years ago  ::  Mar 24, 2015 - 11:39PM #4
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

Concerning 4 of the six columns in the Hexapla, and also Quinta which Origen used - but from Ambrosian:


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1001060075?q...


(10) Ambrosian O 39 sup. renders the divine name by the Tetragrammaton written in square Hebrew characters () in all five columns in the following places: Ps 18:30, 31, 41, 46; Ps 28:6, 7, 8; Ps 29:1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3; Ps 30:1, 2, 4, 7, 8, 10, 10, 12; Ps 31:1, 5, 6, 9, 21, 23, 23, 24; Ps 32:10, 11; Ps 35:1, 22, 24, 27; Ps 36:Sup, 5; Ps 46:7, 8, 11; Ps 89:49 (in columns 1, 2 and 4), Ps 89: 51, 52. This codex, dated to the end of the ninth century C.E., has five columns. The first column contains a transliteration of the Hebrew text into Greek, the second column has the Greek version of Aquila, the third column has the Greek version of Symmachus, the fourth column contains the LXX and the fifth column contains the Greek version of Quinta. A facsimile edition of this palimpsest, together with a transcript of the text, was published in Rome in 1958 by Giovanni Mercati under the title Psalterii Hexapli Reliquiae . . . Pars prima. Codex Rescriptus Bybliothecae Ambrosianae O 39 sup. Phototypice Expressus et Transcriptus.



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2 years ago  ::  Mar 24, 2015 - 11:46PM #5
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

This is a scholarly source which I only partially agree with - it gives a good representation of both sides of scholarly debate - concening Ambrosian Q 39 - from:


tetragrammaton.org/tetrapdxj.html


Excerpt:


  "We were able to locate a copy of Mercati's Psalterii Hexapli Reliquiae in a well-stocked theological library. This large volume photographically reproduces all of the Ambrosiana manuscript. The original manuscript pages are grouped in sets of either two or four on the left-hand page. The complete Hexapla text as found in these ancient manuscript pages is typeset on the right-hand facing page. (There are over forty pages of photographs alone.) From the typeset text, we reproduced Origen's complete six-column entry in each instance in which יהוה occurred in the Hebrew language column. The result is the information given in Table 11. As far as can be determined today, this is an exact reproduction of Origen's original entries for these verses. This table represents only the יהוה entries from the other-wise Greek language text.



Table 11: Origen's entries for the divine name as found in the extant Psalms portion of the Ambrosiana, O 39 Sup. manuscript.
Note: This table contains only the יהוה entries; all Greek entries were omitted.[10]




[10] General notes to the material in Table 11:

a. The above entries represent a comprehensive citation of the Hexaplaric Tetragrammaton from Psalm 17:26-38:53. These entries are extracted from a complete text. However, as given here, each individual entry is complete as found in Giovanni Mercati (ed.), Psalterii Hexapli Reliquiae…, Pars Prima: Codex Rescriptus Bybliothecae Ambrosianae O 39 sup., Vatican City, 1958.

b. The figures <> enclosing a Hebrew character indicate that the character was omitted in the original transcription. Two asterisks (**) indicate an indecipherable entry in the original manuscript which could not be supplied with reasonable certainty by the editor. Letters included in parentheses (…) indicate an indecipherable entry in the original manuscript which were supplied with reasonable certainty by the editor.




    Now that we understand exactly how Origen made his entries in each column, we can make the following observations based on these verses from the Psalms:



  1. As we expect, at each occurrence of the divine name, the Tetragrammaton was written in square Hebrew characters in the Hebrew language column.


  2. Further, with only the exception of an incomplete text at Psalm 17:29, Origen used the Tetragrammaton in the Greek transliteration column. (Refer to Figure 11 where it is more obvious that the second column was in Greek letters. The Tetragrammaton in Hebrew characters was the exception to the Greek of the second column.)


  3. We then discover that Origen transcribed יהוה into the Greek text of columns 3 (Aquila's translation), 4 (Symmachus' translation), and 6 (Theodotion's [or the Quinta] translation). Though we find occasional Greek lettering which Origen included with the Tetragrammaton, we discover that these are merely articles meaning "the" (tou`, tw`i [a scribal error which should read tw`/], and toŸn), prepositions (ejpiŸ meaning "upon," and ejn meaning "in") or a further elaboration of the divine name in the Psalms 45 and 88 entries.


  4. When we look at the Septuagint column, however, we make an unexpected discovery. In all cases but Psalm 17:29, Origen recorded the divine name as יהוה. In addition, however, he also used the surrogate forms k-"-, k-e-, k-n-, k-w-i-[11] and k-u-. These are abbreviations for Kyrios (Kuvrio~). Thus, Origen also identified "Lord" as an alternate reading for the divine name in the Septuagint. (He made similar entries at 28:1 for Symmachus, at Psalm 29:13 for Aquila, and at Psalm 30:6 for Theodotion.)



    [11] The final letter iota should be written under the omega as k-w-/ rather than after the omega as k-w-i-. This error is attributed to the scribe making the copy.



  5. Even more surprising, however, is Origen's entry in the Septuagint column at Psalm 17:8. In this verse he recorded the Septuagint as using either יהוה or one of the Greek forms k-"- or pipiŸ.


  6. Finally, at Psalm 28:1, we notice another unexpected variation which Origen recorded for the Septuagint. He first recorded tw`i יהוה as we would expect. (He has included the article which means "The Jehovah.") He then recorded the alternate form uivoiŸ q-u- ejnevgkate which uses the surrogate q-u- (from Theos) meaning "God." It is his final alternate reading for this verse which surprises us. He used the abbreviation i-w-/ k-w-/. The initial letter combination i-w-/ is the Greek surrogate for יהוה. The second entry is k-w/- which is the Greek surrogate for Kyrios (Kuvrio~). Thus, Origen used the Greek surrogates for "Lord God" as his final alternate reading for the Septuagint in this verse.



______________________


From this evidence it is obvious that some mss. by Origen's time had the Divine Name replaced with kyrios or other forms, while others have the Divine Name retained.


Of course, the main reason I quoted the above was to confirm what our literature stated - that Ambrosian Q 39 contains the Divine Name.

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2 years ago  ::  Mar 25, 2015 - 12:50AM #6
Kemmer
Posts: 18,459

Isn't it amazing the amount of smoke and dust some JWs desperately throw up in the attempt to justify the name of their strange little sect?

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2 years ago  ::  Mar 25, 2015 - 7:09AM #7
five_point_dad
Posts: 4,719

"Smoke" and "dust" are excellent characterizations.  You'll notice Newt's rant is all OT passages which have nothing to do with the inclusion of the word in the NT.  Not only is it smoke and dust, but it is irrelevant smoke and dust. 


I find it almost humorous that when some Trinitarians use I John 5:7-8 to bolster the Trinity, the Watchtower cites principles of textual criticism to combat it, and rightly so.  The passage appears in only eight of the 5,800 known copies to exist.  And four of those eight have variants within them.  The odds of that passage being the original reading is pretty slim.  But, the Watchtower then pencils in 237 "Jehovah" not a single one of those has any textual authority at all.  Suddenly, textual criticism is ignored.  No one ever accused the Watchtower Society of consistency. 

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2 years ago  ::  Mar 25, 2015 - 7:11AM #8
five_point_dad
Posts: 4,719

Mar 24, 2015 -- 10:33PM, Newtonian wrote:

This subject has been discussed on other threads and including from post 158 in my thread on the 237 occurrences of the Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures in NW - where FPD also ignores our referencing a pre-Christian copy of LXX which contains the Divine Name as IAO - but in this thread I am zeroing in on the Hexapla.   From post 158: 


FPD - Concerning actual evidence concerning Origen's Hexapla, you posted:


In a few fragment copies (Q, 86, 88, 243mg, 264) of the Hexapla, the Tetragrammaton is sometimes rendered by imitative Greek letters: PIPI.  But this is not found in any LXX versions. As to the Watchtower’s claim that the original LXX consistently and invariably transcribed the Divine name in Hebrew letters, there is NO evidence at all.


_____________________


If you make a claim about our beliefs, please post the link to our website on that belief....


I reference our literature this time because of your false accusations about us.  For example, your implication the other versions (other than Aquila's)  in the Hexapla were LXX versions is false - we report accurately which versions are in Origen's Hexapla:



wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/2001529?q=He...



Excerpt:



 He is most famous for his Hexapla, a mammoth, 50-volume edition of the Hebrew Scriptures. Origen arranged the Hexapla in six parallel columns containing: (1) the Hebrew and Aramaic text, (2) a Greek transliteration of that text, (3) Aquila’s Greek version, (4) Symmachus’ Greek version, (5) the Greek Septuagint, which Origen revised to correspond more exactly to the Hebrew text, and (6) Theodotion’s Greek version. “By this combination of texts,” wrote Bible scholar John Hort, “Origen hoped to throw light on the meaning of many passages in which a Greek reader would be either bewildered or misled if he had only the Septuagint before him.”



Of course, we reference other scholars, as I do also - on this type of scholarly research - e.g. from our Bible dictionary:



wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200002391?q...





Why is the divine name in its full form not in any available ancient manuscript of the Christian Greek Scriptures?






The argument long presented was that the inspired writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures made their quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures on the basis of the Septuagint, and that, since this version substituted Kyʹri·os or The·osʹ for the Tetragrammaton, these writers did not use the name Jehovah. As has been shown, this argument is no longer valid. Commenting on the fact that the oldest fragments of the Greek Septuagint do contain the divine name in its Hebrew form, Dr. P. Kahle says: “We now know that the Greek Bible text [the Septuagint] as far as it was written by Jews for Jews did not translate the Divine name by kyrios, but the Tetragrammaton written with Hebrew or Greek letters was retained in such MSS [manuscripts]. It was the Christians who replaced the Tetragrammaton by kyrios, when the divine name written in Hebrew letters was not understood any more.” (The Cairo Geniza, Oxford, 1959, p. 222) When did this change in the Greek translations of the Hebrew Scriptures take place?






It evidently took place in the centuries following the death of Jesus and his apostles. In Aquila’s Greek version, dating from the second century C.E., the Tetragrammaton still appeared in Hebrew characters. Around 245 C.E., the noted scholar Origen produced his Hexapla, a six-column reproduction of the inspired Hebrew Scriptures: (1) in their original Hebrew and Aramaic, accompanied by (2) a transliteration into Greek, and by the Greek versions of (3) Aquila, (4) Symmachus, (5) the Septuagint, and (6) Theodotion. On the evidence of the fragmentary copies now known, Professor W. G. Waddell says: “In Origen’s Hexapla . . . the Greek versions of Aquila, Symmachus, and LXX [Septuagint] all represented JHWH by ΠΙΠΙ; in the second column of the Hexapla the Tetragrammaton was written in Hebrew characters.” (The Journal of Theological Studies, Oxford, Vol. XLV, [July-October] 1944, pp. 158, 159) Others believe the original text of Origen’s Hexapla used Hebrew characters for the Tetragrammaton in all its columns. Origen himself, in his comments on Psalm 2:2, stated that “in the most accurate manuscripts THE NAME occurs in Hebrew characters, yet not in today’s Hebrew [characters], but in the most ancient ones.”—Patrologia Graeca, Paris, 1862, Vol. XII, col. 1104.






As late as the fourth century C.E., Jerome, the translator of the Latin Vulgate, says in his prologue to the books of Samuel and Kings: “And we find the name of God, the Tetragrammaton [i.e., יהוה], in certain Greek volumes even to this day expressed in ancient letters.” In a letter written at Rome, 384 C.E., Jerome states: “The ninth [name of God] is the Tetragrammaton, which they considered [a·nek·phoʹne·ton], that is, unspeakable, and it is written with these letters, Iod, He, Vau, He. Certain ignorant ones, because of the similarity of the characters, when they would find it in Greek books, were accustomed to read ΠΙΠΙ [Greek letters corresponding to the Roman letters PIPI].”—Papyrus Grecs Bibliques, by F. Dunand, Cairo, 1966, p. 47, ftn. 4.


_______________


In this thread I will first post from our literature and see if anyone actually disagrees on a specific point in our literature - then I will post additional evidence from other scholarly sources.


Please limit responses to the Hexapla in this thread (i.e. the 6 versions in the Hexapla).


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1200004554?q...


Excerpt:



The Greek “Septuagint.” The Greek Septuagint (often designated LXX) was used by Greek-speaking Jews and Christians in Egypt and elsewhere. Reportedly, work on it commenced in Egypt in the days of Ptolemy Philadelphus (285-246 B.C.E.), when, according to tradition, the Pentateuch thereof was translated into Greek by 72 Jewish scholars. Later, the number 70 somehow came to be used, and the version of the Pentateuch was referred to as the Septuagint, meaning “Seventy.” The other books of the Hebrew Scriptures (by various translators whose style varied from quite literal to rather free rendition) were gradually added until translation of the entire Hebrew Scriptures had finally been completed during the second century B.C.E. and perhaps by 150 B.C.E. Thereafter the entire work came to be known as the Septuagint. This version is often quoted by writers of the Christian Greek Scriptures. Apocryphal writings were evidently inserted in the Greek Septuagint sometime after it was first completed.—See APOCRYPHA.




One of the oldest extant manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint is Papyrus 957, the Rylands Papyrus iii. 458, preserved in the John Rylands Library, Manchester, England. It is of the second century B.C.E. and consists of fragments of Deuteronomy (23:24–24:3; 25:1-3; 26:12, 17-19; 28:31-33). Another manuscript, of the first century B.C.E., is Papyrus Fouad 266 (possessed by the Société Egyptienne de Papyrologie, Cairo), containing parts of the second half of Deuteronomy according to the Greek Septuagint. In various places therein, the Tetragrammaton (YHWH in English) of the divine name is found in a form of square Hebrew characters right within the Greek script.—See PICTURE, Vol. 1, p. 326; JEHOVAH.




The Greek Septuagint has thus been preserved in numerous manuscripts, many fragmentary, others fairly complete. Notably, the Septuagint texts are preserved in the three famous uncial manuscripts written on vellum—the Vatican Manuscript No. 1209 and the Sinaitic Manuscript, both of the fourth century C.E., and the Alexandrine Manuscript of the fifth century C.E. The Septuagint as found in the Vatican Manuscript No. 1209 is almost complete; part of the Hebrew Scriptures once included in the Sinaitic Manuscript has been lost; that in the Alexandrine Manuscript is rather complete, though lacking parts of Genesis, First Samuel, and Psalms.




Later Greek versions. In the second century, Aquila, a Jewish proselyte of Pontus, made a new and very literal Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures. Except for fragments and quotations thereof by early writers, it has perished. Another Greek translation of the same century was produced by Theodotion. His was apparently a revision of the Septuagint or some other Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures, though he considered the Hebrew text itself. No complete copy of Theodotion’s version is extant. Another Greek version of the Hebrew Scriptures of which no complete copy is extant was that of Symmachus. His rendition, probably translated about 200 C.E., endeavored to convey the right sense rather than to be literal.




About 245 C.E., Origen, the noted scholar of Alexandria, Egypt, completed a mammoth multiple version of the Hebrew Scriptures called the Hexapla (which means “sixfold”). Though fragments of it are extant, no complete manuscript copy has survived. Origen arranged the text in six parallel columns containing (1) the consonantal Hebrew text, (2) a Greek transliteration of the Hebrew text, (3) Aquila’s Greek version, (4) Symmachus’ Greek version, (5) the Septuagint, revised by Origen to correspond more exactly to the Hebrew text, and (6) Theodotion’s Greek version. In the Psalms, Origen used anonymous versions he called Quinta, Sexta, and Septima. The Quinta and Sexta were also employed in other books.


[I included comments on the Septuagint (=LXX) since column 5 of the Hexapla is the LXX - but prefer responses on the Hexapla, with LXX as a relevant tangent, and with Symachus, Aquila and Theodotion versions of especial interest to me]


The following picture of Symmachus Version is found here:


wol.jw.org/en/wol/d/r1/lp-e/1102012145




I'm not ignoring anything.  I'm waiting for you to cite a NT Greek text that has "Jehovah" included in the Hebrew characters.  Have you found that text yet or are you still looking? 

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2 years ago  ::  Mar 25, 2015 - 8:18AM #9
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

FPD - There are other threads concerning the Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures - this is NOT one of them.


I will, therefore, ignore any comments you have concerning NT passages unless they are actual direct quotes of the Hebrew Scriptures.


Origen's Hexapla is of the OT/Hebrew Scriptures only.


In my next post I will respond to any comments you make about the Hexapla itself, of one of the 6 versions presented there, as detailed above.

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2 years ago  ::  Mar 25, 2015 - 8:27AM #10
Newtonian
Posts: 14,082

FPD - You posted:


In a few fragment copies (Q, 86, 88, 243mg, 264) of the Hexapla, the Tetragrammaton is sometimes rendered by imitative Greek letters: PIPI.  But this is not found in any LXX versions. As to the Watchtower’s claim that the original LXX consistently and invariably transcribed the Divine name in Hebrew letters, there is NO evidence at all.


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The evidence I posted thus far proves your post is misleading and inaccurate - and with zero documentation on your part while I have given considerable documentation to prove the truth of these matters in some detail.


It also helps document what Hithrappes posted on the 237 occurrences thread indicating the Divine Name began to be removed early in the 2nd century, so that by Origen's time some copies had the Divine Name removed while 'the best copies' have YHWH retained.  (Quote of Origen - see above)

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